"An individual who could have successfully reentered society but for avoidable cause reoffends generates the financial and human costs of the new crime expenditure of law enforcement, judicial and corrections resources, and the loss of the productive work that the individual could have contributed to the economy."

"Society also has a strong interest in seeing that individuals convicted can regain the legal status of ordinary citizens to prevent the creation of a permanent class of internal exiles who cannot establish themselves as law-abiding and productive members of the community." 

- United States Uniform Collateral Consequences of  Conviction Act 2012



Mass incarceration = Internal Exiles >

Photo by Ron Haviv

Photo by Ashley Gilbertson

Photo by Ron Haviv

Photo by Ashley Gilbertson

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Criminalization.

Stigmatization.

Marginalization.